chemically neutral base, usually cellulose or
FILM SPEED See ISO.
FILTER (1) In photography, a layer of colored glass,
gelatin or other material used to alter the character-
istics of light before it reaches the film. (2) In radio
and television, an electronic circuit designed to pass
only selected audio frequencies while eliminating
FILTER, COLOR COMPENSATING A filter used
to change the overall color balance of photographic
results obtained with color film and to compensate
for deficiencies in the quality of the light when
printing color films.
FILTERS, KODAK WRATTEN A line of filters
used in black-and-white photography.
FIVE Ws, THE The who, what, when, where, why
(and sometimes how) that a journalist attempts to
answer in writing a summary lead.
FIXER A solution used to remove undeveloped silver
halides from photosensitized emulsions. The fixer
usually contains sodium or ammonium thiosulfate,
a hardening agent, and an acid or acid salt.
FLAG A newspaper device used to indicate section
pages or special pages, such as editorial, sports and
FLASH See ELECTRONIC FLASH.
FLOOR MANAGER In television, a member of the
studio production team who is in charge of all
activities on the studio floor. The floor managers
main responsibility is to communicate instructions
from the director to the talent using hand signals.
FLOPPY DISK DRIVE A secondary storage device
that uses a removable magnetic disk (floppy disk).
FLUSH To place copy even with the column margin
on either the left or right. Usually designated flush
left or flush right.
FOCAL LENGTH The distance from the optical
center of the lens to the focal plane (film plane)
when the camera is focused upon an object at
FOCAL PLANE The surface (plane) on which an
axial image transmitted by a lens is brought to
FOCAL POINT A point on a newspaper page where
the reader normally looks for the most important
FOCUS To adjust the position of either the lens or
focusing screen in a camera or projector to secure
the sharpest possible image of the object.
FOLIO LINE A newspapers identification line on
FOLLOW-UP STORY A story written to update the
developments of a previous story.
FOOTCANDLE A basic measurement used to gauge
the intensity of light.
FORMAL BALANCE DESIGN A traditional
front-page newspaper design pattern in which the
page is divided in half vertically and each element
on one side of the vertical centerline is duplicated
by the same treatment of elements at the same point
on the opposite side.
FOUR-UNIT HEADING In radio and television, the
portion of the broadcast scrip/release that contains
the slugline, date, copy length and release line. It is
located below the administrative information.
FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT, THE A law
established to give the public the right to access
records of the executive branch of the federal
FRONT LIGHTING In still photography, the type of
lighting effect created when the sun is in back of the
f/STOP A numbered diaphragm opening through
which light enters the camera; f/stops are usually
calibrated to change the amount of light by a factor
of two times with each succeeding number.
GAIN The level of amplification for video or audio
GAIN CONTROL See POT.
GALLEY PROOF The initial copy of a typeset story
used for proofreading and annotating typesetter
GRADUATE A container for liquids marked off to
measure various volumes.
GROUND GLASS A sheet of glass with a grained or
matte (translucent) surface, such as a focusing
screen or a diffusing screen.
HALFTONE The technique used to reproduce
photographs or drawings with tonal qualities