Enlarger and Easel Adjustments
Insert the negative in the negative carrier so the
emulsion side will be down when placed in the enlarger.
In other words, the base of the negative (the shiny side)
should be up or facing the lamp when inserted into the
enlarger. Clean the negative and be sure there is no dust
on it. You can use the light from the enlarger to check
for dust. Blow off any dust with a bulb syringe or
low-pressure air. Then use a camel-hairbrush to remove
any dust that was not removed by the air. Replace the
negative carrier with the negative into the enlarger and
make sure it is properly seated.
Set the paper guide or masking device on the easel
to form the border width needed or use a preset easel.
As an aid for composing and accurately focusing the
image, place a sheet of white paper in the easel the
base side of the paper is used normally for a focusing
sheet then turn out all white lights.
Turn the enlarger lamp on, open the lens to its
maximum aperture, and move the easel around until the
desired portion of the image is in the picture area. Raise
or lower the enlarger head on the upright standard or
column and focus the image. Shift the easel as needed,
and continue these adjustments until the image is
enlarged (or reduced) to the desired size, focused
sharply, and composed correctly on the easel.
The size of projection prints is limited by the optical
system used and the working space available. A scene
may be printed in sections on several sheets of paper and
The picture is easier to compose with the scene right
side up. If it is upside down from your point of view,
either rotate the negative carrier or remove the earner
and reposition the negative. The image will appear right
side up on the easel when it is positioned upside down
in the negative carrier.
Composing the Image
Adjust the picture until the best composition is
obtained. When composing the image, try to connect any
errors of image composition in the negative. The way
the scene is composed on the negative may be a
controlling factor in the final composition. You can
change the composition of the picture through cropping.
This is done by increasing or decreasing the
magnification of the image and readjusting the easel.
After the image is correctly composed and focused,
the lens aperture should be stopped down so your basic
exposure time is about 10 seconds. An exposure time of
10 seconds allows you to accomplish a normal amount
of dodging and is fast enough to be practical for quantity
production. The exact amount the lens should be
stopped down depends on the density of the negative
and the magnification of the image. This can be difficult
to determine without experience. If you are new to
printing, we suggest you start by stopping down the lens
to about f/5.6 or f/8 for a normal negative.
Making a Test Print
There are many factors that effect exposure times in
enlarging. Some of these factors include the following:
. The light source and illumination system of the
l The f/stop of the lens
l The density of the negative
l The degree of enlargement
l The speed of the paper
l The density and color of the contrast printing
The best way to determine the correct enlarging
exposure is by making a test strip. Although the test strip
is the most reliable way to determine exposure, it is not
necessary to make a test strip for every enlargement. It
is, however, a wise practice whenever you have any
doubt as to the exact exposure required.
You can make a test print using the same procedure
in contact printing.
STILL DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY
LEARNING OBJECTIVE: Recognize the basic
process of still digital photography.
Photographic technology is constantly evolving. A
fact that underscores this premise is a relatively new
procedure that will eventually change the way all
photographers take and process pictures. It is called still
Still digital photography, as the name implies,
allows you to take photographs and store them
electronically (digitally) in a specially manufactured
camera. You can then process the photographs using
digital photographic software installed on the hard disk
drive of your computer. This software will allow you to
view, crop and color correct your photographs. When
you are finished, you may output the photographs to