headline and a story, because the reader might begin
reading the cutline thinking it is the first paragraph of
Heads of the same column width should not be
placed lower on the page than a smaller one, or higher
on the page than a larger one. This does not mean that
the bottom of the page cannot contain a large
multicolumn head. It only means that heads of the same
width should decrease in point size as they descend the
Do not run stories out from under their heads. This
creates a readability problem by confusing the reader
about where to find and finish reading the rest of the
A story can be wrapped (to continue a story from
one column to the next) under its main head, or lead, to
achieve variation. A story is always turned to the right
from its main part. A turn running above the headline of
the story could confuse the reader and cause the
individual to abandon the item.
A story requiring a jump, or continuation, to
another page should be split in midsentence, never at a
period of a paragraph. For example, (Continued on
page , col. ) will direct the reader adequately.
The jumped portion should carry a brief head, or key
word, taken from the main head to identify it as a
continuation. The jump head should be keyed to the
same type style and face, although it seldom will be in
the same type size, as the original headline. Never jump
a story on a hyphenated word, or carry over the last line
of a paragraph.
Readability studies have shown that pictures are one
of the most popular elements in a newspaper. For that
reason alone, important pictures should be large and
positioned in a manner that maximizes their display.
Pictures of two-column widths or more should be
placed on a page so they stand or hang from something
that gives them support. A picture can stand on a
headline, another picture or the bottom of the page. A
picture can hang from a headline, another picture or the
top of the page. A picture of two-column widths or more
should not float in copy, but a one-column-wide picture
or smaller can float in copy.
Pictures and headlines that are not related should be
separated by more than a rule, if the possibility exists
that, when placed together, they are humorous or in bad
Avoid any clashing items. For example, do not place
an accident story next to a mortuary advertisement.
(Discuss the placement of advertisements with your
editor or the CE newspaper publisher.)
If you run two pictures, two boxes or a picture and
a box side by side, except in cases where the subjects
are related, they tend to cancel each other out. It is best
to separate unrelated artwork with body type.
Readers eyes have a tendency to follow the line of
sight of people in pictures. Therefore, if people in a
picture look off the page, readers will tend to look off
the page. To prevent the reader from doing this, the main
subjects in pictures should look straight ahead or into
the page. This also holds true for pictures showing
action. The motion should go toward the center of the
page whenever possible. This reader tendency can be
used to your advantage. The line of sight and motion can
be used to guide the readers eye through a page.
Try to avoid running pictures on the horizontal fold
of a newspaper, because the area along the fold becomes
distorted once the newspaper has been folded.
Do not give a picture more display space than it
deserves, especially a mug shot (portrait-type,
close-up photograph of an individual). Mug shots can
float in copy, but it is best if they stand on or hang from
something. If a mug shot floats, it is best to float it within
a sentence in a paragraph. Mug shots should be
accompanied by at least a name line for identification.
By omitting the name line, the reader is forced into
trying to identify the individual in the picture.
Thumbnails also are used in making up
newspaper pages. The term refers to half-column mug
shots. A thumbnail is best used when it looks into the
story or directly out of the page. A name line, in most
cases, should also be used with thumbnails.
WHITES, GRAYS AND BLACKS
A newspaper page is made up of varying degrees of
whites, grays and blacks. Some pages may contain other
colors. A good editor strives for relative balance of
colors on a page and will not let any color dominate the
page. You will not have any problems with white pages,
black pages or any other colored pages; your concern is
staying away from gray pages.
There are many ways to relieve grayness, or
gray-out, which is created by large areas of body type.
One way is to use multicolumn pictures to break up
columns of type. Another way is to use thumbnail