seating arrangement and the facilities for using aids
might present a problem or might need greater attention
in some circumstances. The outline in figure 6-2 will
prove helpful in analyzing an audience.
Sometimes the reason for an invitation to speak may
not always be apparent on the surface. A commander of
a fleet ballistic missile submarine squadron, who
receives an invitation to speak to a chamber of
commerce on future ASW applications, should not
always jump to the conclusion that they are interested
because the SUBRON itself is very shortly going to be
homeported in their community. The audience may have
read that this squadron of six or eight ships will soon be
their neighbors, will be nuclear-powered, and will carry
nuclear weapons. Their hidden motive for inviting him
might conceivably be a fear of possible harm from the
On the other hand, a request for a speaker may
reflect the audiences desire to know the impact on the
community of an incoming unit. The speech writer must
know this and adapt his speech accordingly. He must
supply the speaker with the necessary facts to answer
the questions they might pose.
Previously, we have been concerned with
adjustments to the audience, the situation and the
occasion. As the speaker, it was necessary to analyze the
audience you hoped to influence, to know their wants
and to adapt your material to their needs. But now, as
the speech writer for another speaker, you have an
additional adjustment to makethe analysis of the
To write a speech for another person, you must put
yourself in his place, understand his aims and try to think
the way he does. In a manner of speaking, the idea is to
get inside the person and learn what makes him tick. If
you succeed, your words will sound natural coming
from the man who delivers them. Make certain the
speech reflects the speakers personality.
As a beginning, get to know the man. Where has he
been? What has he done? Check the personal history
file and you will find some answers. Read his previous
speeches and the comments on them to get his ideas and
his use of words. Listen to him talk and know how he
expresses himself. Pick up his pet phrases and
anecdotes. Find out if there are some words or sounds
he cannot pronounce easily. Develop a writing style and
vocabulary suited to his speaking personality, verbal
mannerisms and capability. If this is not possible, write
the speech in a straight journalism style that will permit
the speaker to personalize it himself.
Let us assume your office receives a request for the
CO (or his representative) to speak to a civic group.
What do you do to assure a successful talk and to make
it worth the time of the audience and the skipper? You
should analyze, recommend, outline and polish the
Analyze the Speech
Initially you must analyze your audience, occasion
and location and determine the purpose best served in
the talk. Asking and seeking to answer the following
types of questions will aid you in this process:
1. Is it merely to inform?
2. Is it to convince (or to actuate) the audience?
3. Is it to secure their goodwill toward the
command and its activities?
4. Is any Navy topic acceptable, or do they want
5. Is there anything that could offend them?
6. Will they be a friendly audience?
Consider the speaker and his relationship to
members of the group, his prestige within the group and
his previous contacts with them. Consider the aspect of
the subject that would best suit the above factors.
Recommend the Speech
Now go in to see your commander (or the speaker)
to determine his wishes and ideas for the particular
speech. Be prepared to recommend a limited objective
that most fits the requirements you determine from your
analysis. If this objective is accepted, you should also
prepare to discuss the tentative outline points to be
covered. Be alert to references he makes to personal
experiences, that may be used as examples.
If your speaker proposes a different topic, jot down
the tentative outline points as you discuss them and
check them with him before you leave. This one step
will save considerable rewriting time.
Outline the Speech
At this point, prepare a complete, detailed outline of
the entire speech, citing types of example material for
each point to be made.
Plan the type of audiovisual aids to be used and
indicate on the outline where they are to appear during