have to determine just what the limited objective will
One of the keys to success in any talk is knowing
exactly what you are going to cover in the time allotted.
Notice that after the preceding examples of attention
steps there appeared in parentheses a transition and a
statement of exactly what the speaker was going to
cover. These sentences are the result of a broad, general
subject, such as The North Atlantic Treaty
Organization (NATO) being cut to a specific portion of
that subject. Moving from the general subject to a
limited portion of it is called limiting the objective.
Since most subjects are much too broad to be
covered completely in the time allocated, let us take a
broad subject, NATO, and see how you, the speaker or
speech writer, can select a limited objective from it.
One of the easiest ways for you to start is to conduct
a question and answer period with yourself. The major
consideration in cutting the subject is the time you have
in which to speak. For example, if you had only 10
minutes to talk about some aspect of NATO, the cutting
process might look like this:
l Can I tell everything about NATO in 10 minutes?
Of course not. It will have to be cut down.
. How about explaining the organizations of
NATO: the civil organizations and the military
organization with its four major commands? Too
broad-more cutting needed.
. How about one, two or three things about each
various organization within NATO? The one,
two or three idea is fine, but I cannot adequately
cover one, two or three areas of each and every
organization in just 10 minutes.
. How about briefly tracing the history and overall
mission of NATO, and then explain the
importance of just one command within NATOs
military structure? Process completed.
Remember, the second part of an introduction is
called the limited objective. It is simply a one-sentence
statement of what you are going to talk about in the time
allotted. When condensing the above limited objective
concerning NATO into key words, it might appear on
your key word outline described in figure 6-1 as follows:
For the subject:
THE NORTH ATLANTIC
B. Limited Objective-NATO's history or mission
and importance of Allied Command Atlantic.
A fine imaginative attention step is a sure way to
begin your talk. Follow this with a simple statement of
what you are going to cover by stating your limited
objective, and the audience becomes aware of what you
are going to say. If you proceed directly to the
explanation or body of your talk, you stand a good
chance of losing the attention of half the group. Why?
Because, in most cases, that audience does not care
about what your limited objective might be. If you
assume they will be polite and listen to you, you are
undoubted y ignoring the many times you have tuned
a speaker out because you did not think what he would
say would benefit you.
To prevent this, it is necessary to make sure that your
objective appeals to your audience. Therefore, the third
portion of an introduction is called motivation and is
simply calculated to show your audience how they will
benefit should they spend the next 10 minutes listening
to you talk about your limited objective.
Very few individuals are moved to action without
first being motivated to some extent. The wish to
impress someone important to you motivates you to be
sure you look your best when meeting that person; the
desire to qualify for advancement is motivating you at
this moment to read this sentence. Advertisers use the
process of motivating continuously, and whether you
buy one product or another usually depends upon the
skill of the advertiser in convincing you that his product
is more suitable for you.
Those last two words, for you, are essential. The
underlying theory behind all these examples is the same:
Take this action or buy this product and you will be
better off. Getting that audience to sit up and say,That
is for me! will result in an attentive group throughout
your talk. There are many different and varied
approaches for motivating audiences. For example, you
might appeal to the audiences pride, loyalty, fear,
acquisition and independence.
How do you know what will get your particular
audience to listen? How do you know what appeal to
use? For the answer to these questions, you will have
to analyze your audience (explained later). With the aid
of this information, you should be able to predict some
general similarities in your audience. Use these
similarities for your appeal.
Once you make the initial appeal, it is necessary for
you to include an example of that appeal to add reality.
Simply saying, Listen to me talk because what I have