A gesture is the movement of any part of the body
to convey some thought or emotion. Gestures should
always be purposeful. They must be natural and seem to
grow out of what you are saying. Avoid artificial
gestures and mannerisms that do not help to express an
Whenever you speak, you and the Navy will be
judged by your appearance. Immaculate grooming will
give you added confidence in facing your audience and
will add emphasis to what you say.
The quality of your voice has a direct bearing on the
effect you will create. Make sure you are loud enough
to be heard. Nothing is quite so exasperating as trying
to read a speakers lips to find out what he is saying.
Volume should be increased so the person in the last row
can hear every word you articulate. Expressiveness is
important too. An expressive voice varies the rate of
speaking and appears to be conversational in tone.
Some thoughts should be spoken slowly, some with
feeling and some with excitement. Above all, the rate
should be natural for the idea expressed and should serve
to emphasize important ideas. Of course, the words
selected to convey your ideas must not be overlooked.
No speaker will ever have to contend with the criticism
that he has a dull or faltering voice if he earnestly strives
to get his point across and avoids sounding wooden and
mechanical in delivery.
Learning Objective: Identify the audiovisual aids used
to support speeches.
There are several types of audio and visual aids that
a speaker can use to support his oral presentation. The
materials and equipment we will discuss now are
available at the visual information or graphics divisions
of most commands, or they may be borrowed from
nearby training aids centers or video libraries. They can
also be procured through normal supply channels by the
speech writer or by the speaker himself.
Most large public affairs offices, as part of their
standard office equipment, maintain such items as
35mm Carousel and overhead projectors, screens, audio
cassette recorders, stock video footage, a 35mm slide
file, videocassette players, television monitors, and so
forth. For the actual operation of this equipment, refer
to the various manufacture guide books.
Audiovisual aids (equipment and materials) fall into
the following four general categories:
Directly shown devices
Optically projected aids
Actual objects and models
Audio or sound effects
In your speaking situation, you must decide what
category (or combination) will best serve you in
increasing your ability to communicate your
information to a particular audience.
DIRECTLY SHOWN DEVICES
Directly shown presentation devices are reliable
and relatively inexpensive. This category consists of
charts, graphs, posters, maps, dry marker or
chalkboards, slap-ons and handouts.
A chart may range from a simple list to a complex
portrayal of the function and structure of an
organization. A well-made chart is simple and
uncluttered and adds immeasurably to the interest and
clarity of your presentation.
A chart frequently used is the strip-tease outline
chart. This chart contains a brief outline covered with
strips of paper. The strips are removed when the right
word, symbol or phrase is needed to reinforce the oral
presentation. Of course, the words or phrases should be
arranged in logical sequence, corresponding to your key
word outline or prepared manuscript.
The following is a list of rules you should keep in
mind when you use a chart:
Use short phrases and words and illustrate their
Use type and lettering large enough to be seen
Use highly visible colors.
Do not use too many colors.
Keep it simple.