The pie graph is often used to present a percentage
breakdown. The complete pie or circle represents 100
percent. The pieces represent proportional percentages.
Although more difficult to prepare, the picture
graph is often the most interesting and striking of the
four types. Picture graphs are used to show trends,
comparisons or combinations of the two. They are
prepared in a manner similar to the bar graph. By
substituting whole and part symbols for the bar,
percentages or quantities can be indicated accurately.
Posters are used to symbolize ideas. Usually they do
not contain text. Sometimes a short statement or word
can be used to help the audience grasp the idea more
quickly. An illustration that clarifies your point can
convey a message with great impact.
When you prepare a poster (or work with the
graphics division on its preparation), eliminate all
unnecessary words. Keep the message simple and direct
and make sure your picture illustrates what you are
trying to get across.
There are several methods by which you can
produce a poster. Using an opaque projector (explained
later), you can enlarge a picture that can be traced and
colored as desired. You can also use carbon paper and a
stylus for tracing, either directly or with a sheet of
tracing paper in between. For some, using a T square
and pantograph will work fine, while others will opt for
the freehand method.
A map should be large enough to be seen easily; it
is preferable to draw in or emphasize by color the areas
you are discussing. Maps can be reproduced in the same
fashion as posters.
The following list presents a few suggestions to help
you develop your technique for using a map effectively
as an aid in speaking:
Colored overlays may be used to outline specific
Colored ribbons may be stretched between points
to show relationships and distances.
Cutouts, such as arrows, circles and rings, may
be prepared in advanced and taped to the map in
the course of the presentation.
. Acquaint yourself with the map so that you do
not have to hunt for the country, state, city or area
you are trying to point out.
Dry Marker or Chalkboards
The main advantage of using the dry marker or
chalkboard is that an idea can be placed on the board bit
by bit or strip-teased as it is developed orally. Consider
the following rules for using these boards:
Plan your illustrations in advance.
Keep the board simple and uncluttered.
Make sure everyone can see the board.
Avoid obstructing the view of the board.
Do not keep your back to the audience for
Use a pointer when you point to something on the
Do not allow yourself to get trapped by
substituting the board for visual aids that you did
not get a chance to prepare in advance.
Make sure your handwriting is legible.
Use color for emphasisnot mere decoration.
You can sketch diagrams in advance with a pencil
to quicken the drawing process while you are
You can prepare and strip-tease art in advance.
Slap-ons are cardboard signs that are usually four
inches wide with various lengths. They contain key
words or ideas the speaker wants to emphasize. Magnets
are glued to the back side and placed on a magnetic
chalkboard. Slap-ens placed on felt-covered boards
require small pieces of Velcro tape glued to the back.
You may use photo copies of a chart, drawing, fact
or data sheet, welcome aboard brochure, and so on, as
an aid to your talk. You must carefully plan the time of
the distribution. Beware of the temptation to pass out
handouts, outlines, or any printed matter during the
presentation. Doing this will divert attention from what