light you can make pictures that you could not make
with other types of lighting.
For example, flash may not be appropriate during a
change of command ceremony or chapel service. Not
only might the flash disturb the proceedings, but it may
not carry far enough to light the subject adequately.
Indoor scenes illuminated by fluorescent lights
usually appear pleasing and natural in real life.
However, color pictures of these same scenes will often
have an overall color cast that makes them look very
unnatural. Fluorescent light is deficient in red light and
emits primarily blue and green light. Most color pictures
made without a filter under fluorescent light also are
deficient in red and have an overall greenish appearance.
When it is used correctly, fluorescent light does have
some advantages over other types of available light. A
room illuminated by fluorescent lamps is usually
brighter and more evenly lighted than a room
illuminated by tungsten lamps. This higher level of light
makes it easier to get enough exposure for your existing
light photography and helps record detail that might
have been lost in the shadow areas with other types of
When you are photographing people, fluorescent
lighting often causes dark shadows under the eyes of the
subject. This effect causes the eyes to appear dark and
Nighttime, Outdoor Pictures
Outdoor night scenes usually include large areas of
darkness broken by smaller areas of light from
buildings, signs and streetlights. Pictures of outdoor
scenes are quite easy to make because good results are
obtainable over a wide range of exposures. The use of
short exposures emphasizes well-lighted areas by
preserving the highlight detail, while the shadow areas
become dark due to underexposure. Long exposures
help retain the detail of the dark areas, while highlight
detail is lost as a result of overexposure.
Large, dark areas in night scenes will make it
difficult for you to make accurate exposure meter
readings from your camera position. You will get the
best meter reading results when you take closeup
readings of important scene areas.
At night you can make color outdoor pictures using
either daylight or tungsten-type films. Pictures made on
daylight film will have a warm, yellow-red appearance.
Those made on tungsten film will have a colder more
natural look. However, both films provide pleasing
results so it is a matter of personal preference.
A good time for you to make outdoor night color
pictures is just before it gets completely dark At this
time, some rich blue (or even orange) is in the sky. This
deep color at dusk gives a dramatic background to your
pictures. Neon signs, streetlights and building lights
make bright subjects for your pictures.
ELECTRONIC FLASH LIGHTING
In situations in which there is little or no light
available, a portable, electronic flash unit is an
invaluable piece of photographic equipment. With fast
films and long exposures, you may be able to shoot
existing light pictures provided your subject remains
still long enough. Although you can certainly get better
lighting control with elaborate photographic lights, the
simplicity and portability of electronic flash is
Electronic flash provides an excellent source of
artificial light for exposing black-and-white and color
daylight film. Light from an electronic flash unit
(strobe) is characterized by its softness, short duration
and color balance, approximating that of daylight.
When you measure the amount of light that actually
reaches an objector scene, a numerical value is obtained
that can be converted directly into a flash guide number.
The numerical value is the light output rating of an
e l e c t r o n i c f l a s h u n i t m e a s u r e d i n b e am
candlepower-seconds (BCPS) or more correctly,
effective candlepower-seconds (ECPS).
Every electronic flash unit is assigned a guide
number as a measure of its light output or power. The
higher the guide number, the greater the light output.
Correct exposure with electronic flash depends
upon the following four factors:
l The power or light output of the flash unit
. The ISO speed of the film used
l The flash-to-subject distance
l The tistop used
Shutter speed is not a factor since the time of
exposure is governed solely by the duration of the flask.
Notice we always speak of flash-to-subject
distance, never camera-to-subject distances. With all
types of artificial illumination (the same as with