Figure 5-14.Use of curved lines in photographic composition.
smoothness, and dignity to a photograph (fig. 5-14). The
most common curved line is the S curve.
Lines are not only present in the shape of things but
can be created by arranging several elements within the
picture area so they form lines by their relationship with
Creating your pictures around repeating elements or
patterns provides picture unity and structure. Pattern
repetition creates rhythm that the eyes enjoy following
(fig. 5-15). When lines, shapes, and colors within a
picture occur in an orderly way (as in wallpaper), they
create patterns that often enhance the attractiveness of
photographs. Pattern, like texture, is found almost
everywhere. It can be used as the primary subject but is
most often used as a subordinate element to enhance
composition. When pattern is used as a supporting
element, it must be used carefully so it does not confuse
or overwhelm the viewer. Pictures that are purely pattern
are seldom used, because they tend to be monotonous.
Patterns should be used to strengthen and add interest to
Shape is the most common and powerful pattern
element. Repeated lines, tone, and color can also
provide unity to your composition and combinations of
these create interesting pictures. Triangles, squares, and
circles are the basic shapes to look for in a pattern.
Triangles and squares are usually static but can be placed
to create a tension-filled, dynamic effect. Circles and
curves are pleasing pattern shapes.
When photographing most subjects, you face the
problem of how to symbolize three-dimensional objects
in a two-dimensional picture. The solution becomes