When you are copying a color print to a color
negative, the best film to use is Kodak Internegative
film. Because of the inherent high contrast of
photographic papers, if not controlled, contrast is gained
in each generation of a reproduction. Kodak
Internegative film is designed to give greater contrast
separation in the highlights without raising the overall
subject contrast in the negative. To achieve proper color
balance in the shadows, midtones, and highlights, you
must perform tests to assure that proper exposure and
color filtration is obtained. The Photo-Lab Index
contains the procedures necessary to accomplish this
Combined Black-and-White Line and
When a black-and-white original contains both line
and continuous-tone matter, the ideal copy method is to
copy each type of matter with an appropriate film
separately and then sandwich the two negatives
together, or print the two negatives separately on the
same piece of paper. The colored lines should be copied
with an extremely high contrast film, such as Kodalith
Pan, and the pastel-colored portions of the original
should be copied with a moderate contrast film.
When copying the original with only one type of
film, you loose quality in either the lines or the
continuous tones. For best results, you should copy the
combined line and continuous-tone original with a
moderate contrast film, such as Kodak Professional
Copy film or Kodak Commercial film.
Black-and-White Halftone Originals
A black-and-white halftone original consists of a
pattern of black dots of various sizes that represent tones
of gray. Examples of halftone originals are printed
pictures in newspapers or magazines. Small dots with
ample white space between them produce an illusion of
a light tone or highlight. Large dots that are close
together produce the illusion of dark tones or shadow
areas. Because the dots are all the same tone (black),
halftone originals can be copied as line originals. This
type of original can also be copied as a continuous-tone
original, depending on the use of the final product.
Reflection Originals Specifically
Produced for Copying
When an original is to be used specifically for
copying, you can take certain measures to ensure better
and color prints produced for copying should have
normal density, color saturation, and a glossy surface.
When a non-glossy surface is used, the texture of the
surface may be apparent in the copy negative and
material that is to be copied should be typed with a new
typewriter ribbon. A carbon one time ribbon is best.
To further increase contrast between the type and the
paper background, you can place a sheet of carbon paper
behind the typing paper. This causes the carbon to be
transferred onto the back of the paper during typing.
When using a typewriter to produce copy that will
be photographed for making 35mm slides, limit your
typing to no more than 8 double-spaced lines with
43 elite or 36 pica characters to a line. When
photographing typed copy, use a template as a guide for
setting up your camera Allow about 1/8 inch of space
outside the template lines in the camera viewfinder.
Originals with Defects
Occasionally, the only record of an event is the
original document that through age or use is no longer
in its original condition. By use of appropriate corrective
measures, certain defects in originals can be eliminated
or minimized in the reproduction.
WRINKLED OR CREASED ORIGINALS.
Reflection originals that are wrinkled or creased can be
flattened by placing the original on a mounting board
and then in a heated dry-mounting press. Mounting in
this manner is permanent and should be considered
carefully before being used.
Another method you can use to flatten an old
photograph is to wet the photograph with water and
squeegee it onto a sheet of glass with the emulsion
toward the glass. The photograph must be removed from
the glass before it dries; otherwise, it may stick to the
STAINED BLACK-AND-WHITE ORIGINALS.
Usually, transparent stains on black-and-white originals
can be eliminated in the reproduction by using
panchromatic film and a filter that is the same color as
the stain. Details on eliminating images of stains with
filters is discussed in chapter 3.
FADED BLACK-AND-WHITE PHOTO-
GRAPHS AND MANUSCRIPTS. Normally, black-
and-white photographs and other types of original
documents that have faded and are yellowed should be