BORAXSodium tetraborate, Na2B4O710H2O; a mild
alkali used as an accelerator in photographic
developers, particularly for finegrain effects.
BRIGHTNESS RANGEVariation of light intensities
from maximum to minimum. Generally refers to a
subject to be photographed. For example, a
particular subject may have a range of one to
four-that is, four times the amount of light is
reflected from the brightest highlight as from the
least bright portion of the subject.
BULB EXPOSUREAn exposure in which the shutter
remains open as long as the shutter release
mechanism is depressed.
BURNING INIn photographic printing, a technique
by which selected areas of the image are given extra
exposure, and the rest of the image is protected
against added exposure.
CABLE RELEASEA device consisting of a stiff wire
encased in an outer flexible covering designed to
trip a camera shutter without touching the camera
itself. One end is threaded to fit the shutter, and the
other has a thumboperated plunger.
CAMCORDERA portable video camera with
videotape recorder (VTR) and a microphone
attached to form a signal unit.
CAMEL-HAIR BRUSHTerm used to define any
brush with superfine, soft bristles used for dusting
lenses and front surface mirrors.
CAMERAA lighttight chamber, usually fitted with a
lens, through which the image of an object is
recorded on a light-sensitive material.
CAMERA, IDENTIFICATION A
still-picture camera used primarily for the making
of identification photographs.
CAMERA, REFLEXA camera containing a
reflecting mirror within the box, so the image may
be focused on a ground glass on top of the camera.
A single-lens reflex camera has a device to swing
the mirror out of the way during the exposure. A
twin-lens reflex camera uses two lenses: one for the
viewing image and one for the actual
CAMERA, VIEWA tripod-mounted camera that has
incorporated into its construction a long bellows, a
rising and falling front, horizontal and vertical
swing, lateral shift of front and back, and either a
reversible or a rotating back The view cameras
versatility is valuable for the correction of
distortions in architectural, close-up, and illustra-
CAPSTANAn electrically driven roller that rotates
and transports the videotape past the recorder heads
at a precise and fixed speed.
CASSETTEA light-trapped metal or plastic container
for a length of roll film to enable it to be loaded into
a camera in full light.
CCDCharged-coupled device, also called a chip. A
small, solid-state (silicon resin) imaging device
used in a video camera instead of camera pickup
tubes. Inside the chip, image-sensing elements
translate the optical image into a video signal. Chip
cameras are insensitive to burn in.
CELL, PHOTOELECTRICA device by which light
is transformed into electrical energy. Used as the
sensitive element in exposure meters and optical
sound reproducers and projectors.
CENTIGRADE A thermometer scale having 100
divisions between the freezing and boiling points of
water in universal use for scientific purposes. Also
called Celsius after its inventor. Centigrade
temperatures may be converted to Fahrenheit
temperatures with the following formula:
when F = Fahrenheit temperature and C = Centi-
grade temperature. (PIA)
CENTIMETER A unit of length in the metric system
which is 0.01 of a meter. According to American
standards, 1 inch is equivalent to 2.54 centimeters
CHARACTER GENERATORAn electronic device
to create words or graphics that may be
electronically inserted or keyed over the video
CHARACTERISTIC CURVEThe curve showing
the relationship between exposure and resulting
density in a developed photographic image. It is
usually plotted as the density against the log
exposure in candle-meter-seconds. Called also the
H. and D. curve and the sensitometric curve.
The abscissa is sometimes an arbitrary relative
CHEMICAL FOG Fog
development of parts of a film not exposed to light.