Exception: Dalai Lama is capitalized in all
usages, since that title is used instead of the name
of the person holding that office.
Months and days, but not seasons
Example: Last summer our vacation began on
the first Thursday in August.
All holidays, historic dates, religious holidays,
special events, military exercises, hurricanes and
Examples: Christmas, Fathers Day, Washing-
tons Birthday, National Safety Week, Operation
Desert Storm, Typhoon Gay, Hurricane Andrew.
All proper nouns or names
Examples: Marty Martin, Bangkok, Hudson
All names of countries and their languages,
unions, republics and colonies
Examples: He learned to speak French in France.
India is a former British colony. Other examples
are Union of South Africa and Republic of Korea.
Examples: Middle East, Midwest, Southern
California, Panhandle, Arctic Circle, but
lowercase antarctic or arctic in reference (arctic
Examples: Buckeye State, Leatherneck Project
All decorations and awards
Examples: He was awarded the Medal of Honor.
His father received the Nobel Peace Prize. She
was awarded the Navy Achievement Medal for
All nouns referring to the deity of all
Examples: God the Father, Holy Ghost. Also
capitalize Satan and Hades, but not devil or hell.
Lowercase gods and goddesses in reference to
the deities of polytheistic religions.
Names of races
Examples: Indian, Chinese, Caucasian. Lower-
case yellow, white, black (Identification by race
should be made only when it is pertinent.)
The first letter of each word, except articles,
conjunctions and short prepositions that are not
the first word, in titles of books, plays, hymns,
poems and songs
Examples: All the Ships at Sea, Damn
Yankies, O Come All Ye Faithful.
U.S. government and state government agencies,
branches, committees and departments when the
full name is used
Examples: Federal Communications Commission
Interstate Commerce Commission. In addition,
always capitalize U.S. Congress and U.S. or state
Senate, House, and Legislature when referring to
a specific body.
Examples: the Florida Senate, the Texas
Legislature and the Senate, when clear reference
is made; the word government, when used alone
or with an adjective, is lowercase. Example:
She works for the government.
Ideological or political areas
Example: East-West relations are at a stalemate.
Use lowercase when referring to direction.
Example: Some say the western part of Florida
has nicer beaches than the eastern part.
Names of organizations, expositions, and so forth
Example: The Boy Scouts will visit the Worlds
Fair. Lowercase scout and fair when they are
To abbreviate is to make a word or phrase shorter
by leaving out or substituting letters. Some military and
civilian terms are so long that abbreviation is almost a
must. However, always spell out the name of
organizations or groups on its first use. If a name does
not have a commonly known abbreviation, the
abbreviation should be parenthesized after the first
spelling. Thereafter, you may use just the abbreviation
as in this example: The guidelines of the Civilian Health
and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services
(CHAMPUS) have changed. ...
The abbreviations that follow and those used
throughout this TRAMAN are basically those
standardized for civilian and military newswriting by
The Associated Press and United Press International.