it with chocolate and topping it off with a 750-foot
mountain of whipped cream and a 10-ton maraschino
cherry. This versatility is available for any radio
production and is limited only by your imagination and
ability to locate or create sound effects.
The following are the three main types of sound in
Real sound effects are produced in the studio using
the actual source, such as papers shuffling or scissors
cutting cloth. You are limited to the availability of the
particular item to make the desired sound.
Simulated sound effects are those that do not
recreate reality, but merely suggest it. Crinkling
cellophane can suggest a campfire, and running your
thumb across the teeth of a comb can suggest casting a
Prerecorded sound effects are those available on
tape or compact disc (CD). The two types of these are
the ones that create a sound picture, such as a city street
or factory, and the ones that create individual sounds,
such as footsteps or the opening of a door. When using
prerecorded sound effects, you are limited to the
recordings available in the tape or CD library of your
USE OF THE VOICE
The voice is the essence of most radio productions,
because it conveys the message. Each announcer
interprets copy according to his style of delivery and the
type of delivery needed to communicate the message
effectively. Voice characterizations may be used if it is
appropriate to the production, but make sure the
characterization is realistic and portrayed well.
BASIC PRODUCTION CONCEPTS
There are many ways to put an audio production
together. The technique you decide on will depend upon
the complexity of the production, the equipment
available to you and your ability to put it all together.
Although there are many variations to the process,
audio productions usually are formed around the
following four basic concepts:
Beginning to end
Prerecorded music and sound effects
Beginning to End
When you are using this method, everything is done
nonstop, mixing all the elements onto tape. This means
recording the narration, background music and sound
effects at one time, as they are called for in the script.
Because this method requires many rehearsals and
considerable production skill, it is not recommended for
the inexperienced broadcaster.
If you choose the prerecorded voice method, put one
element on an audiotape cartridge (known in the
industry as a cart) and mix the other elements in as
you go. This method is best used for a production that
requires only a few supportive elements. The
prerecorded element is the narration, allowing you to
concentrate on mixing the other effects as they are
needed. You can add other elements later.
A disadvantage to this method is that it limits the
announcers flexibility to interpret the script as it relates
to the accompanying music or effects. Therefore,
prerecorded voice is not the recommended method of
production. It is used sparingly and, generally, only for
straight copy requiring little interpretation.
Prerecorded Music and Sound Effects
Although time consuming, the prerecorded music
and sound effects method works best in a complicated
production, especially if the producer is inexperienced.
By placing all the elements onto cartridges and then
mixing them on a reel-to-reel tape recorder, you can
build sound elements by layering one element on
another using multiple recordings. The possible
combinations of cartridge-to-reel, CD-to-cartridge and
cartridge-to-cartridge are many. This method also
allows the announcer to adapt the vocal mood to the
mood created by the other elements.
The segmenting method allows the broadcaster to
take manageable portions of the production and produce
them using the beginning to end method. These separate
segments then can be edited together to form a complete
production. This method is good for very long and
complicated productions but it requires both editing skill