The window on the inner disk displays the
percentage of original size. In the preceding example,
the photograph will be reduced to 75 percent of the
cropped size. Percentages less than 100 indicate a
reduced size; those higher than 100 mean the
photograph will be enlarged. If you work for a CE or
funded newspaper, your printing contract may stipulate
maximum reduction and enlargement percentages and
Photographs or other artwork must be marked
appropriately so the publisher will know exactly what
you want. Instructions are usually printed on the reverse
of a photograph with a china marker. For instance, you
mark a photograph 1-A, reduce to 24 picas by 5 inches
(width is always given first in art sizes). The 1-A is a
way of letting the publisher know you want the
photograph to appear on page 1, fitted into a space
designated A on the layout. It also tells the publisher
that you have scaled the photograph, and when
reproduced, it will occupy a space 24 picas wide and 5
inches deep; or you might simply use slugs to match a
story with a related head, art and cutline. Usually, an
editor devises the key system to be used.
Typography is the art of printing with type. It
involves the style, arrangement and appearance of the
printed page. As editor of a ship or station newspaper,
you should be familiar with a few important type-related
Type size is measured in points. One point is
approximately one seventy-second of an inch. Twelve
points equal one pica (remember six picas equal one
inch). Points are used to measure the height of a letter
of type. The width of a line of type is given in picas.
Most newspaper columns are about 12 picas (2 inches)
wide. Type ranges in size from 3 to 120 points. Your
stories will usually be printed in 8- or 10-point type.
Most of your headlines will range from 12 to 36 points.
The depth of a column of type or art (measured down
the page) is given in inches. A column inch is one
column wide and 1 inch deep; a photograph two
columns wide and 3 inches deep occupies six column
Did you ever stop to think how many different kinds
of handwriting you come across in a single day? Some
are large and bold, some are weak, some small, some
clear and some are almost illegible. Type styles, called
typefaces, are much the same.
The first concern of selecting a type is, of course,
clarity. Type must be legible. However, there is more to
it than that. Like handwriting, typefaces reflect certain
characteristics, such as refinement, dignity, boldness or
strength. Properly used, they can convey the feeling or
mood of a message. They maybe warm, brisk, dignified,
modern or old-fashioned whatever is needed to
emphasize or suggest the thoughts expressed in copy.
Type can be used to attract the readers attention.
The use of large boldfaces is one of the most effective
ways of stopping the eye. Large, boldface type,
however, is difficult to read. It should be limited to a few
words and should be followed by smaller, more legible
faces that invite reading.
Most kinds of type have both capitals and small
letters. Publishers use the term uppercase for capitals
and lowercase for small letters. These terms originated
in early printshops where type was set by hand. The
less-used capital letters were stored in an upper storage.
case and the frequently-used small letters in a lower one.
As early as the seventeenth century, publishers
knew they had to organize their typefaces efficiently.
They arranged their typefaces into main type classes.
The six main classes of type (fig. 8-15) areas follows:
Figure 8-15.The six main classes of type.