other. Paint the panels flat light blue or green, which will
make the skin tones look more natural on color
television To reduce glare and reflections from studio
lights, you should use flat latex paint.
Before painting the panels, you should check your
color choices. Paint small squares of wood and compare
them on camera. There must be a distinct difference
between set tone and skin tone in order to provide
adequate contrast without being excessive. Make sure
you select a color that provides suitable contrast when
used with either dark or light skin.
When you erect a set, you should consider the
following three production areas:
Camera and microphone boom movement.
The camera support and microphone boom must
be allowed space on the set in which to move.
This is especially important for camera angle or
position changes and for recording quality sound.
Talent movement. The talent must have free
access if he moves around the set.
Lighting. The set must provide sufficient
lighting for the camera(s).
CREATING THE ENVIRONMENT
A set is used to create the environment or mood of
the scene and must be appropriate to the purpose of the
program. Sets are generally divided into the following
A natural set does not represent any specific locale
or period and could be, for example, a plain gray
background. This type of set can be used for a training
program, because there are no background distractions.
Realism can be achieved in three ways. An exact
copy of a period or original scene would be a replica,
while a setting portraying a type of scene, such as an
early sailing ship, is atmospheric. The suggestion of an
office by the use of a desk and chair, or the shadow of a
branch to suggest a tree, is symbolic.
The use of abstract shapes or textures can create
character and mood Unrealistic settings have no direct
relationship to the real world, but suggest to the viewer
a feeling or sense of the location or time.
LEARNING OBJECTIVE: Identify the basic
television shooting techniques.
Television pictures are subject to the aesthetic rules
covered in Chapter 12. In fact, because of the wide usage
of television, it can even be considered the standard by
which we judge most picture composition. However, the
following factors unique to television influence picture
composition to a certain extent:
Small television picture size. Because of the
relatively small size of the television screen,
objects must be shown relatively large.
Inflexible aspect ratio. The 3:4 aspect ratio of
the picture cannot be changed and all picture
elements must be composed to fit it.
What the camera sees is what the viewer gets.
The television camera serves as the viewers
eyes; therefore, camera movement, as well as the
static arrangement of elements within the frame,
must be considered.
Time constraints. Because of the time limita-
tions placed on all television productions, you
may not be able to predetermine composition,
especially during alive show. Sometimes, all you
can do is correct certain compositional errors.
In the television business, the picture on the screen
is referred to as a shot. A shot may change when either
the camera or talent moves. Shots can last for only a few
seconds or be as long as a minute or two. In extreme
cases, one shot can last the entire program.
As a television camera operator, you must think in
terms of shots and master the basic shots of television