possible composition. Regardless of the number of
people in a group, they should be situated to fill the
picture and provide the largest possible image size of
each person. One exception to this general rule is when
the importance of the background is equal to or greater
than the group itself. This often occurs with an informal
group when the picture is actually intended to emphasize
some object or piece of equipment, rather than the
individuals. In this case, locate the camera for the best
composition of the Object; then arrange the people in the
picture to enhance the story being told.
As with individual pictures, you must stay in charge.
If you relinquish control, you will have a hard time
getting everyone to look at the camera at the same time.
Talk to the group and give them your instructions. Make
sure your equipment is ready so you do not waste time
and lose the groups attention.
LEARNING OBJECTIVE: Recognize the basic
techniques used in a darkroon in terms of
using solutions and equipment.
After apiece of photographic film or paper has been
exposed to light, it is necessary to process the image and
change it from a latent to a visible and permanent image.
The process is chemical, and although you do not need
to understand why the chemicals act as they do, it is
important to know which chemicals/solutions are used,
the order in which they are used, the recommended
temperature and the required time.
Photographic processing can be defined simply
as a series of chemical changes that accomplish the
Develop the image
Stop the action of development at a desired point
Fix the visible image to make it permanent
Wash away all traces of chemicals used
Dry the photographic material
In the most basic processing, only two solutions are
required: a developer and a fixer, plus water for
washing. Additional solutions can be used as film
military imaging facilities, craft shops and even home
labs are as follows:
l Stop bath
l Wetting agent
When a photographic emulsion is exposed to light,
the silver halides (usually silver bromide and/or silver
chloride) in the emulsion change chemically. However,
no noticeable change can be seen until the film is
developed. The developer causes the affected silver
halides to change into metallic silver while having no
effect on the unexposed silver halides. The result is that
a subject area reflecting the most light will affect the
most silver halides and will be the darkest part of the
image formed in development. That which is light in the
subject is dark in the processed image and inversely, that
which is dark in the subject is light in the image.
There are many types and brands of film and
developer that all do the job they are designed to do.
Reading and following the manufacturers directions is
the soundest advice that can be given. If the
manufacturer states that a developer is for general use
with film, do not expect good results trying to use it to
develop prints. If the manufacturer states that the proper
time to develop a certain film is 10 minutes at 70 degrees
Fahrenheit (F), do not expect good results at five
minutes or at 50 degrees F. If the manufacturer advises
thoroughly dissolving Part A before adding Part B,
mix the developer that way or be prepared to get inferior
It has become common practice to rinse film in
running water after development to retard development
and to remove excess chemicals. With prints, it is equally
common to use an acid bath to stop the action of the
developer and prolong the life of the fixer. In either case,
the bath is referred to as a stop bath. Acetic acid diluted
with water is the most commonly used stop bath.
The fixer is sometimes called hype because the
conditioners to shorten processing time or to preserve
other solutions. The solutions commonly found in
main ingredient of the fixer formula, sodium thiosulfate,
is also known as hyposulfate.